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A Guide to the Different Parts of a Solar Energy System

April 24, 2023

If you’re considering going solar, it’s essential to understand how your new solar energy system will work. Knowing what all the components do will help you get the most out of your solar panels and will help you keep your system viable for decades to come. Read on and discover more information in our helpful guide to the different parts of a solar energy system.

Solar Panels

Solar panels, otherwise known as photovoltaic (PV) panels, are the heart of any solar energy system. These panels contain PV cells made of semiconductor materials, like silicon, which absorb sunlight and generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. When sunlight hits the PV cells, they excite electrons, creating an electrical current.

There are two main types of solar panels: monocrystalline and polycrystalline. Monocrystalline panels, made from a single crystal structure, are more efficient but also more expensive. Polycrystalline panels, composed of multiple crystal structures, are more budget-friendly but slightly less efficient.


Inverters play a pivotal role in solar energy systems, converting the direct current (DC) electricity produced by solar panels into alternating current (AC) electricity that can be used with household appliances and the electrical grid. There are three primary types of inverters:

  • String inverters: Used in systems with multiple solar panels connected in series, string inverters convert the combined DC output of the panels into AC electricity.
  • Microinverters: Attached to individual solar panels, microinverters optimize the output of each panel, making them more efficient in situations with shading or varying panel orientations.
  • Hybrid inverters: These inverters manage both solar energy conversion and battery storage, combining the functions of traditional inverters and charge controllers for a streamlined system.

Mounting Systems

Mounting systems securely anchor solar panels to roofs, the ground, or poles, ensuring they remain stable and can withstand various weather conditions. There are three main types of mounting systems:

  • Roof mounts: The most common type of mounting system, roof mounts can be installed on various roof materials and angles, maximizing available space and sun exposure.
  • Ground mounts: Ideal for large-scale solar installations or properties with limited roof space, ground mounts are installed directly on the ground, often with adjustable angles for optimal sun exposure.
  • Pole mounts: These mounts elevate solar panels on poles, providing additional height and flexibility for installations in areas with limited space or challenging terrain.


Solar batteries store excess electricity generated by solar panels for use when the sun isn’t shining or during power outages. While not necessary for all solar energy systems, batteries can increase energy independence and provide backup power. The most common battery technology for solar systems is lithium-ion due to its high energy density, long life, and relatively low maintenance.

Keep in mind that solar batteries are an add-on—they will not be automatically included in a solar panel installation.

Charge Controllers

Charge controllers manage the flow of electricity between solar panels and batteries, protecting batteries from overcharging and ensuring optimal performance. There are two main types of charge controllers:

  • Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) controllers: These controllers regulate the voltage and current coming from the solar panels, providing a constant charging voltage to the batteries. PWM controllers are more affordable but less efficient than their MPPT counterparts.
  • Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controllers: These controllers continuously adjust the input voltage and current to maximize the power output from the solar panels, making them more efficient, especially in varying sunlight conditions. However, MPPT controllers are more expensive than PWM controllers, so it’s essential to weigh the benefits against the costs based on your specific solar energy system requirements.

Monitoring Systems

Monitoring systems enable you to keep an eye on your solar energy system’s performance, ensuring everything is running smoothly and efficiently. These systems collect data on energy production, consumption, and system health, allowing you to identify any potential issues early and make informed decisions about system maintenance or upgrades.

Monitoring systems can be as simple as a basic display on the inverter or as advanced as a comprehensive online platform you can access with your computer or smartphone.

Solar Energy System Warranties

Investing in a solar energy system is a significant decision, and it’s essential to protect your investment with appropriate warranties. Solar energy system warranties ensure you get the most out of your system, safeguarding against any potential defects or issues with the various components.

Solar Panels

Solar panels in Albuquerque typically come with a warranty, which can come in two forms—performance warranties and product warranties.

  • Performance warranties guarantee that the panels will produce a certain percentage of their rated power output for a specified period, usually 25 years. For example, a common performance warranty might guarantee that the panels will produce at least 90 percent of their rated output for the first 10 years and 80 percent for the remaining 15 years.
  • Product warranties protect against manufacturing defects or material failures for a set period, usually between 10 and 12 years. These warranties ensure the panels will be free from defects that could impact their performance or lifespan.


Inverter warranties typically last between 5 and 15 years, depending on the manufacturer and the type of inverter (string, micro, or hybrid). Some manufacturers also offer extended warranties for an additional cost. These warranties cover manufacturing defects and material failures that could affect the inverter’s performance.

Mounting Systems

Mounting system warranties generally range from 10 to 25 years, protecting against defects in materials and workmanship. These warranties ensure your mounting system remains structurally sound and securely anchors your solar panels throughout their lifespan.


Battery warranties vary depending on the manufacturer and the type of battery technology used. Most lithium-ion battery warranties range from 5 to 10 years and often include a guarantee for a minimum number of charge cycles or a certain percentage of the battery’s original capacity during the warranty period. These warranties protect against manufacturing defects and performance degradation beyond the specified parameters.


In addition to warranties on individual components, reputable solar installers often provide workmanship warranties lasting between 1 and 10 years. These warranties cover any issues related to the installation process, including labor and potential damage to your property during installation.

Now that you have reviewed this guide to the different parts of a solar energy system, you have the information you need to install a system that meets your requirements. Harness the power of the sun and join the renewable energy revolution for a cleaner, greener future!

A Guide to the Different Parts of a Solar Energy System

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